Polycystic Ovaryian Disease or syndrome is a common reproductive endocrine disorder affecting around five to ten percent of women wherein excessive amount of androgens (male hormones such as testosterone) are produced by ovaries. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, and hirsute (excessive hair growth.)
If it is not treated on time it may cause insulin resistant diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol leading to heart disease.It also leads them on a path towards infertility. It is difficult to detect PCOS symptoms and hence its difficult for women to understand the reason for their infertility. Characteristic of the syndrome are as follows:
- Chronic an ovulation
- Chronic hyper androgenism
- Polycystic ovaries appearing on the ultrasound
The main cause for PCOD is that ovaries make both female and a tiny amount of male sex hormones (androgens) that helps in the regular development of the eggs in the ovaries during each menstrual cycle.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a result of the imbalance in these sex hormones. In PCOD, ovaries start making slightly more androgens than normal that results in no ovulation or excess growth of facial or body hair. In polycystic ovarian syndrome, the eggs in the follicles do not mature and are not released from the ovaries. Instead, they form very small cysts in the ovary and are called polycystic ovaries.
Most common symptoms for PCOD are:
- Weight gain and trouble losing weight
- Extra facial and hair growth.
- Thinning hair on the scalp.
- Irregular periods for instance some women have no periods and others have very heavy bleeding.
- Fertility problems like many women who are suffering from PCOS have trouble getting pregnant.
Medical treatment for PCOD includes:
- Lowering of blood glucose levels
- Restoration of fertility
- Treatment of hirsutism or acne
- Restoration of regular menstruation, and prevention of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer
- Birth control pills or progesterone pills are given to make menstrual cycles more regular
- Medications like metformin can improve symptoms of PCOD and normalize menstrual cycle
Complications related to PCOD are such as:
- It increases risk of endometrial cancer
- Conditions related to obesity, high blood pressure, heart problems and diabetes
- Risk of breast cancer
It is important to overcome issues such as PCOD that may later lead to infertility. It is more important to raise awareness amongst women so that they are adept and can overcome the affects of PCOS before it’s too late.