In Vitro Fertilization or IVF is a widely used technique to treat patients suffering from infertility. Infertility is defined as the inability of an organism to reproduce. There are multiple factors that can be responsible for infertility. It can affect both males and females. In females, factors like improper ovulation, fallopian tube damage or uterine abnormalities to name a few, can be responsible for infertility. Similarly, in males low sperm count, defective sperm delivery system or medicinal side effects can cause infertility.
IVF technique employs a series of procedure. The term “in vitro” has a literal meaning of outside the living organism. This is taken into consideration and the technique is performed in a test tube or a petri dish. The procedure starts with the collection of egg and sperms from healthy individuals. These are then fused together in a test tube, giving all the conditions that are present inside the living organism while the fusion of the egg and sperm.
Once the fusion has taken place successfully, the resulting embryo is then transferred inside the uterus after 3 to 5 days with the help of a small tube or catheter. This whole process takes around 2 weeks. The number of cycles is dependent upon the age of the female. Age is a major factor determining the rate of fertilization. Given the procedure is successful; the implantation takes place around 8 to 10 days post transfer.
In Vitro Fertilization is a popular technique. However, it comes with a multiple of pre and post procedure guidelines. These guidelines are as follows:
The pre procedures involve the testing of both the male and the female thoroughly. The male is checked for the semen quality and sperm quantity. The female on the other hand, is checked for ovulation rate and the quality of eggs. Apart from this, both the partners are checked for infectious disease like HIV or any other susceptible genetic disorder. The uterine cavity of the female is analyzed to check for any hindering factor. A mock experiment in performed before finally performing the procedure.
After the implantation is successful, a lot of things are to be kept in mind. The first and foremost is to check for multiple pregnancies. This has to be dealt with care and proper timely decision should be taken to ensure the safety of both the mother and the fetus. Apart from this, there are chances that a number of embryos are left in the procedures. These unused embryos can be freezed by the method of cryopreservation and can be used in future.
Along with these, there are multiple side effects as well that may arise. The most common side effects include, mild cramping, mild bloating and some fluid discharge to name a few. However, severe side effects like heavy vaginal bleeding, blood in urine or high fever should not be ignored and the doctor should be consulted.
A number of factors like age, environmental factors and genetics to name a few determine the fertility rate of an individual. The success rate of IVF treatment is quiet high and a number of childless couples are opting for it these days.